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Muscles support a strong immune system -- ScienceDaily

"If the T-cells, which actively fight the infection, lose their full functionality through continuous stimulation, the precursor cells can migrate from the muscles and develop into functional T-cells," said Jingxia Wu, lead author of the study. "This enables the immune system to fight the virus continuously over a long period." So could regular training strengthen the immune system? "In our study, mice with more muscle mass were better able to cope with chronic viral infection than those whose muscles were weaker. But whether the results can be transferred to humans, future experiments will have to show," explains Guoliang Cui.

Microbiome may be involved in mechanisms related to muscle strength in older adults -- ScienceDaily

To gain insight into this population, the researchers compared bacteria from the gut microbiomes of 18 older adults with high-physical function and a favorable body composition (higher percentage of lean mass, lower percentage of fat mass) with 11 older adults with low-physical function and a less favorable body composition. The small study identified differences in the bacterial profiles between the two groups. Similar bacterial differences were present when mice were colonized with fecal samples from the two human groups, and grip strength was increased in mice colonized with samples from the high-functioning older adults, suggesting a role for the gut microbiome in mechanisms related to muscle strength in older adults. Specifically, when compared to the low-functioning older adult group, the researchers found higher levels of Prevotellaceae, Prevotella, Barnesiella, and Barnesiella intestinihominis -- all potentially good bacteria -- in the high-functioning older adults and in the mice that were colonized with fecal samples from the high-functioning older adults.

Cardio exercise and strength training affect hormones differently -- ScienceDaily

Endurance training on a bicycle has such a marked effect on the metabolic hormone that we know ought to take a closer look at whether this regulation of FGF21 is directly related to the health-improving effects of cardio exercise. FGF21's potential as a drug against diabetes, obesity and similar metabolic disorders is currently being tested, so the fact that we are able to increase the production ourselves through training is interesting', Christoffer Clemmensen elaborates.

Recovery Is All in Your Head | Outside Online

“Interfering with the natural stress response, particularly by prolonging it, is maladaptive,” says Kiely. “The brain and body will only dedicate resources to rebuilding if it doesn’t feel an emergency is around the corner.” In other words, rushing to work and cranking on a deadline report after a challenging morning workout may seriously mitigate positive physical gains.

Football Players' Tendons Can't Handle Lockout : Discovery News

Even though scientists can't prove that the extended NFL lockout caused this season's high rate of injuries, the new study lends support to what athletes and coaches already know. To avoid injuries, it is essential to prepare your body in sport-specific ways -- whether you're an elite football star or a middle-aged weekend warrior who plays pick-up basketball or soccer. "One of the reasons people tear their Achilles is that they are sedentary or relatively sedentary and then they step up the intensity," said Bert Mandelbaum, an orthopedic surgeon in Santa Monica, team physician for several Major League Soccer teams, and director of research for Major League Baseball. "Tendons just can't handle that level of stress." And it's not just the Achilles that can blow when put into a high-pressure situation, Mandelbaum said. Bones, ligaments and tendons in the knees and elsewhere are all vulnerable to forces that they're not prepared for. On the flip side, he said, our bodies have an amazing ability to adapt to extra loads when put through a gradual and comprehensive workout program that includes attention to strength, agility, coordination, aerobic fitness, balance and neuromuscular control. Ballistic plyometric exercises, which involve high-intensity jumping, can be particularly helpful, Hewett said -- reducing the risk of joint, ligament and tendon injuries by as much as 50 to 60 percent.