Recent quotes:

Placebo effect may explain reported benefits of psychedelic microdoses -- ScienceDaily

Szigeti and his colleagues designed a citizen science study where individuals who were already microdosing could participate online. First, the 191 participants followed a setup procedure that mixed placebo pills with microdose ones. After the setup, the participants had a set of capsules without knowing which were placebo and which were microdose. The authors call this process 'self-blinding', as participants lost knowledge of which drug they were taking. The setup included barcodes which, when scanned, linked to the study's IT infrastructure and allowed the researchers to track who had taken microdoses or placebos. The participants then filled out surveys about their experiences and completed online cognitive tests, while they took the pills over a four-week period. Participants who were taking the real psychoactive drugs and those unknowingly taking the placebos reported similar psychological benefits. "Our results are mixed: on the one hand, we observed microdosing's benefits in a wide range of psychological measures; on the other hand, equal benefits were seen among participants taking placebos," Szigeti explains. "These findings suggest that the benefits are not due to the drug, but rather due to the placebo-like expectation effects. Many participants who reported that they experienced positive effects while taking the placebo were shocked to learn after the study that they hadn't been taking the real drug."

Tolerance must occur?

Specifically, not the serotonin receptors that LSD binds to in the claustrum region of the brain. “Once LSD gets in the receptor, you can think of it as a hole in the ground. LSD jumps into it and then pulls a lid down over the top,” says study co-author Bryan Roth, a pharmacologist at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine. “Basically, from the structure we could tell that once LSD gets in there it can't get out. That's why it lasts so long.” We’re talking 12, 18, maybe 24 hours, by the way. Still, that lid will move around, so some LSD molecules will escape as the high wears off.

10 SEALs Set to be Separated from the Service for failing Drug Tests; Investigation Underway - USNI News

“We have a zero-tolerance policy for the use of illicit drugs and as such these individuals will be held accountable for their actions. We are confident in our drug testing procedures and will continue to impress on all members of the command that illicit drugs are incompatible with the SEAL ethos and Naval service.” It’s unclear if the incidents are related. The failure of the drug tests has sparked a Naval Special Warfare Command investigation into the circumstances around the failures. Since he took command of Naval Special Warfare Command in 2016, commander Rear Adm. Tim Szymanski has been vocal inside the community that bad behavior would not be tolerated in the SEAL community. In late 2016, East Coast SEALs took an operational pause to address the drug problem in special warfare after several investigations found a spike in usage “I feel like I’m watching our foundation, our culture erode in front of our eyes,” commander of Naval Special Warfare Group 2 Capt. Jamie Sands said in a closed-door meeting as part of the standdown, according to video obtained by CBS.