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Flickering light mobilizes brain chemistry that may fight Alzheimer's -- ScienceDaily

n 2016, researchers discovered that light flickering at 40 Hz mobilized microglia in mice afflicted with Alzheimer's to clean up that junk. The new study looked for brain chemistry that connects the flicker with microglial and other immune activation in mice and exposed a surge of 20 cytokines -- small proteins secreted externally by cells and which signal to other cells. Accompanying the cytokine release, internal cell chemistry -- the activation of proteins by phosphate groups -- left behind a strong calling card. "The phosphoproteins showed up first. It looked as though they were leading, and our hypothesis is that they triggered the release of the cytokines," said Singer, who co-led the new study and is an assistant professor in the Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering at Georgia Tech and Emory.

In Alzheimer's research, scientists reveal brain rhythm role -- ScienceDaily

In 2016, Tsai and colleagues showed that Alzheimer's disease model mice exposed to a light flickering at 40 Hz for an hour a day for a week had significantly less buildup of amyloid and tau proteins in the visual cortex, the brain region that processes sight, than experimental control mice did. Amyloid plaques and tangles of phosphorylated tau are both considered telltale hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease. But the study raised new questions: Could GENUS prevent memory loss? Could it prevent the loss of neurons? Does it reach other areas of the brain? And could other senses be stimulated for beneficial effect? The new studies addressed those questions. In March, the team reported that sound stimulation reduced amyloid and tau not only in the auditory cortex, but also in the hippocampus, a crucial region for learning and memory. GENUS-exposed mice also performed significantly better on memory tests than unstimulated controls. Simultaneous light and sound, meanwhile, reduced amyloid across the cortex, including the prefrontal cortex, a locus of cognition.