henry copeland @hc

Convener, runner, puzzler. Instigator of Racery, Pullquote, Twiangulate, Blogads. Via Wooster, New Haven, 85th and Columbus, Budapest, Paris. y84.

Recent quotes:

Cycling to work 'halves risk of heart disease and cancer' | Daily Mail Online

The researchers, whose findings are published in the BMJ, studied the commuting habits of 263,450 middle aged men and women. They assessed their health for five years and recorded whether they developed cancer, heart disease or died of any cause. Adults who walked to work – typically six miles a week – were 27 per cent less likely to develop heart disease than those who drove or took public transport. But walking did not protect them against cancer or other chronic health problems – possibly because they were not exercising for long enough. Adults who cycled to work for any distance were more than 40 per cent less likely to get cancer, heart disease or die within the next five years.

Hogwarts Running Club launches world's biggest virtual race

“Games are not just a source of entertainment,” writes Jane McGonigal, who analyzed the power of game-power and virtual communities in her book Super Better. “They are a model for how to become the best version of ourselves.”

BlogAds: Is There Life after Nov. 2? | News | TechNewsWorld

Moulitsas signed in December last year. DailyKos has done so well he quit his day job as a Web consultant and has finally been able to justify his blogging passion to his wife. "I owe [Copeland] everything," he jokes. "He saved my marriage." The question now is whether Copeland can save the blog business from post-election doldrums.

When Nigel Farage met Julian Assange | Politics | The Guardian

A highly placed contact with links to US intelligence told the Observer: “When the heat is turned up and all electronic communication, you have to assume, is being intensely monitored, then those are the times when intelligence communication falls back on human couriers. Where you have individuals passing information in ways and places that cannot be monitored.” When asked about the meeting in the embassy, Farage said: “I never discuss where I go or who I see.” In October, Roger Stone, a Republican strategist whose links to Russia are currently under investigation by the FBI, told a local CBS reporter about “a back-channel communication with Assange, because we have a good mutual friend … that friend travels back and forth from the United States to London and we talk”. Asked directly by the Observer if Nigel Farage was that friend, his spokesman said: “Definitely not.”

Highest odds for stimulants: male, US, upper year medical student

Psychostimulant use was significantly correlated with use of other drugs (Table 1). Lifetime use of psychostimulants was significantly associated with male gender (21 % male (519/1,087) versus 15 % female (568/1,087), Chi squared p = 0.007, 28 no response). Students who mainly grew up outside the U.S. were significantly less likely to report any lifetime psychostimulant use than their U.S.-reared counterparts (outside of U.S. psychostimulant use prevalence = 4 % vs. 20 % U.S. reared; Chi squared p = 0.013). Overall prevalence of psychostimulant use while in medical school was significantly associated with current year in medical school, with first year students being least likely to report use compared to their second, third, fourth and fifth-year colleagues (41 % first year (n = 42/196), 66 % second year (n = 59/196), 60 % third year (n = 52/196), 71 % fourth year (n = 41/196), 50 % fifth year or beyond (n = 2/196); Chi squared p = 0.048, two no response). Students who self-reported attending a school that determined class rank were significantly more likely to respond that they had used psychostimulants while in medical school (class rank assessed 68 % versus no class rank 51 %, Chi squared p = 0.018). Items not significantly correlated with psychostimulant use included age, marital status, estimated class rank (split by quartiles), tobacco use, caffeine intake, or weight loss supplementation.

Cognitive Enhancement Drug Use Among Future Physicians: Findings from a Multi-Institutional Census of Medical Students

Of these, 11 % (117/1,115) of students reported use during medical school (range 7–16 % among schools). Psychostimulant use was significantly correlated with use of barbiturates, ecstasy, and tranquilizers (Pearson’s correlation r > 0.5, Student’s t-test p < 0.01); male gender (21 % male versus 15 % female, Chi squared p = 0.007); and training at a medical school which by student self-report determined class rank (68 % versus 51 %, Chi-squared p = 0.018). Non-users were more likely to be first year students (Chi-squared p = 0.048) or to have grown up outside of the United States (Chi-squared p = 0.013).

Drug Abuse Among Doctors: Easy, Tempting, and Not Uncommon

Another reason that physicians don't report their colleagues, researcher Lisa Merlo says, is because medical schools fail to educate them about the disease of addiction. Most medical schools include only a lecture or two on addiction, she says. By contrast, the University of Florida requires all third-year students to complete a 2-week rotation in addiction medicine. "Every physician in the United States has to deliver a baby to graduate, but how many of them are ever going to deliver babies in practice?" she asks. "But every doctor is going to see addicted patients."

Drug Abuse Among Doctors: Easy, Tempting, and Not Uncommon

Access rapidly becomes an addict's top priority, he notes, and self-medicating physicians will do everything in their power to ensure it continues. "They're often described as the best workers in the hospital," he says. "They'll overwork to compensate for other ways in which they may be falling short, and to protect their supply. They'll sign up for extra call and show up for rounds they don't have to do." Physicians are intelligent and skilled at hiding their addictions, he says. Few, no matter how desperate, seek help of their own accord.

Stimulant Use Exceptionally High Among Medical Students

Of 148 medical students, 145 (98%) responded to the survey. The results revealed that 20% of students reported lifetime use of stimulants, with 15% reporting stimulant use during medical school. Compared with Asian students, white students had a 9-fold increase in odds for stimulant use (P = .001). The investigators note that the sample size was not large enough to reliably compare prevalence of stimulant use in black and Hispanic medical students. The researchers report that 13 students (9%) reported a diagnosis of ADHD and had an odds ratio of 37 for stimulant use in medical school compared with those without an ADHD diagnosis (P < .001). The study also revealed that, of those who had taken stimulants, 83% used them specifically to boost cognitive performance, including improving focus while studying and staying awake longer while on clinical duty. There were no differences in stimulant use by age, marital status, or academic achievement. "Indeed, those with high standardized test scores had an almost identical use prevalence compared with those with lower test scores," the investigators report. The majority (83%) of students who reported using stimulants used them specifically to improve cognitive performance.

My Stimulant Use in Med School: The Good, The Bad, The Victory » in-Training, the online magazine for medical students

ADD medications are generally marketed to “unleash the potential of the student,” which is accurate. In my case, I could finally barrel through those lecture notes without stopping five times to look at some shiny thing in order to earn a slightly below average grade on an exam (I’d stop only 2 times, instead). Indeed, there is evidence to suggest that high-functioning students do not benefit from stimulant use the way lower-functioning students do. Of course, “high” and “low” functioning takes on a whole new meaning when we’re now splicing up classes of some of the highest achieving students from their colleges, but this is part of the issue in saying “ADD versus ‘normal.’” It’s really “ADD versus your potential.” The ability to synthesize complex ideas in my head had never been the issue, even through college (i.e. my intellect on its own was plenty strong). My ability to utilize this abstract synthetic ability was the issue, thus the obvious utility of Focalin.

Adderall Concentration Benefits in Doubt: New Study

The last question they asked their subjects was: "How and how much did the pill influence your performance on today's tests?" Those subjects who had been given Adderall were significantly more likely to report that the pill had caused them to do a better job on the tasks they'd been given, even though their performance did not show an improvement over that of those who had taken the placebo.

Adderall, Ritalin, Vyvanse: Do smart pills work if you don’t have ADHD?

What if Adderall turns out to be the new coffee—a ubiquitous, mostly harmless little helper that enables us to spend more time poring over spreadsheets and less time daydreaming or lolling about in bed? For those of us whose natural predilections are to spend far too little time poring and far too much daydreaming, they’re a big improvement over self-medication via caffeine or cigarettes. But those without ADHD might well ask themselves: Don’t I work enough already?

Adderall, Ritalin, Vyvanse: Do smart pills work if you don’t have ADHD?

“The evidence is pretty clear that these are potent stimulants,” says Craig Rush, a professor of behavioral science at Kentucky. "They produce euphoria, and they have significant abuse potential.” Nora Volkow, director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse, told 60 Minutes in 2010 that she believes even casual use can lead to addiction. “It’s not worth the risk to be playing with a drug that has potentially very adverse affects.”

Blood Pressure and Heart Rate in the Multimodal Treatment of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Study Over 10 Years

Disclosures: Dr. Elliott has received research funding from Cephalon, McNeil, Shire, Sigma Tau, and Novartis; has consulted to Cephalon and McNeil; and has been on the speakers’ bureaus of Janssen, Eli Lilly, and McNeil. Dr Swanson has received research support from Alza, Richwood, Shire, Celgene, Novartis, Celltech, Gliatech, Cephalone, Watson, CIBA, Janssen, and Mcneil; has been on the advisory boards of Alza, Richwood, Shire, Celgene, Novartis, Celltech, UCB, Gliatech, Cepahlon, McNeil, and Eli Lilly; has been on the speakers’ bureaus of Alza, Shire, Novartis, Celltech, UCB, Cephalon, CIBA, Janssen, and McNeil; and has consulted to Alza, Richwood, Shire, Celgene, Novartis, Celltech, UCB, Gliatech, Cephalon, Watson,, CIBA, Janssen, McNeil, and Eli Lilly. Dr. Arnold has received research funding from Celgene, Curemark, Shire, Noven, Eli Lilly, Targacepts, Sigma Tau, Novartis, and Neuropharm; has consulted to Shire, Noven, Sigma Tau, Ross, Organon, Targacept, and Neuropharm; and has been speaker for Abbott, Shire, McNeil, Targacept, and Novartis. Dr. Hechtman has received research funding from the National Institute of Mental Health, Eli Lilly, GlaxoSmithKline, Janssen Ortho, Purdue Pharma, and Shire; has been on the speakers’ bureaus of Eli Lilly, Janssen-Ortho, Purdue Pharma, and Shire; and has been on the advisory board of Eli Lilly, Janssen-Ortho, Purdue Pharma, and Shire. Dr. Abikoff has received research funding from McNeil, Shire, Eli Lilly, and Bristol-Myers-Squibb; has consulted to McNeil, Shire, Eli Lilly, Pfizer, Celltech, Cephalon, and Novartis; and has been on the speakers’ bureaus of McNeil, Shire, and Celltech. Dr. Wigal has received research funding from Eli Lilly, Shire, Novartis, and McNeil; and has been on the spearkers’ bureaus of McNeil and Shire. Dr. Jensen has received research funding from McNeil and unrestricted grants from Pfizer; has consulted to Best Practice, Shire, Janssen, Novartis, Otsuka, and UCB; and has participated in speakers’ bureaus for Janssen,-Ortho, Alza, McNeil, UCB, CMED, CME Outfitters, and the Neuroscience Education Institute. Greenhill has received research funding from or has been a consultant to the National institute of Mental Health, National Institute on Drug Abuse, American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Johnson & Johnson, Otsuka, and Rhodes Pharmaceuticals. Dr. Gibbons has consulted to the US Department of Justice, Wyeth, and Pfizer. Ms. Odbert, Ms. Severe, and Drs. Hur, Kaltman, Wells, Molina, and Vitiello report no relevant financial relationships.

Long term heart rate elevation from past stimulant use

The effect on heart rate was in large part driven by current use of medication, although at one time point (8 years) there was a significant effect of cumulative exposure regardless of current use.

The MTA at 8 Years: Prospective Follow-Up of Children Treated for Combined Type ADHD in a Multisite Study

By the next follow up, three years after enrollment (22 months after the end of the randomly assigned treatment), there were no longer significant treatment group differences in ADHD/ODD symptoms or functioning.6 That is, although the improvements over baseline for children in all four groups were maintained, the relative advantage associated with the intensive 14-month medication management in the MedMgt and Comb groups had dissipated.6

Long term ADHD meds worsen school function

Medication use during the past year, measured at each assessment and treated as a time-varying covariate, was associated with outcome over time in a pattern consistent with prior reports.1, 4, 6 It was generally associated with better functioning at 14 and 24 months, when medication use mostly reflected randomized treatment group assignment, but it was associated with worse functioning and more school services (or showed no association with other outcomes) at the later assessments.

Children’s A.D.D. Drugs Don’t Work Long-Term - The New York Times

But in 2009, findings were published from a well-controlled study that had been going on for more than a decade, and the results were very clear. The study randomly assigned almost 600 children with attention problems to four treatment conditions. Some received medication alone, some cognitive-behavior therapy alone, some medication plus therapy, and some were in a community-care control group that received no systematic treatment. At first this study suggested that medication, or medication plus therapy, produced the best results. However, after three years, these effects had faded, and by eight years there was no evidence that medication produced any academic or behavioral benefits.

Higher heart rate

Using random effects meta-analysis, we found that subjects randomized to CNS stimulant treatment demonstrated a statistically significant increased resting heart rate [+5.7 bpm (3.6, 7.8), p<0.001] and systolic blood pressure findings [+2.0 mmHg (0.8, 3.2), p=0.005] compared with subjects randomized to placebo.

Stairs are the new stimulants

"We found, in both the caffeine and the placebo conditions, that there was not much change in how they felt," said Patrick J. O'Connor, a professor in the department of kinesiology who co-authored the study with former graduate student Derek Randolph. "But with exercise they did feel more energetic and vigorous. It was a temporary feeling, felt immediately after the exercise, but with the 50 milligrams of caffeine, we didn't get as big an effect."

Methodological considerations in the measurement of subjective well-being - OECD Guidelines on Measuring Subjective Well-being - NCBI Bookshelf

What we do know in this field raises some concern – for example, in the case of evaluative measures, Bjørnskov (2010) states that the English word happy is “notoriously difficult to translate”, whereas the concept of satisfaction better lends itself to precise translation (p. 44). Veenhoven (2008) equally notes that perfect translation is often not possible: “If it is true that the French are more choosy about how they use the word “happy”, they might place the option “'très heureux' in the range 10 to 9, whereas the English raters would place “very happy' on the range of 10 to 8” (p. 49). When Veenhoven tested this issue with Dutch and English students, the Dutch rated “very happy” as being equivalent to 9.03 on a 10-point scale, whereas the English rated it at 8.6 on average.

America is Regressing into a Developing Nation for Most People

majority of the low-wage sector is white, with blacks and Latinos making up the other part, but politicians learned to talk as if the low-wage sector is mostly black because it allowed them to appeal to racial prejudice, which is useful in maintaining support for the structure of the dual economy — and hurting everyone in the low-wage sector.  Temin notes that “the desire to preserve the inferior status of blacks has motivated policies against all members of the low-wage sector.”

ADHD as a social construct

Researchers looked at ADHD rates for 378,881 children ages 4-17 in Taiwan where the cutoff birthday for school enrollment is Aug. 31, making students born in that month the youngest in their class and those born in September the oldest. They found 1.8% of students born in September received an ADHD diagnosis compared to 2.9% of those born in August. Roughly 1.2% of those born in September received ADHD medication compared to 2.1% of those born in August.

The WHO Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale for DSM-5 | Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorders | JAMA Psychiatry | The JAMA Network

adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is common, seriously impairing, and usually undiagnosed

Circadian meta rhythm needed for consciouness?

of Surrey and the University of Salzburg, Austria, examined circadian body temperature variations of 18 patients suffering from severe brain injuries and the potential link to consciousness. Circadian rhythms are an approximate 24-hour cycle governed by the body's internal clock and they determine a number of physiological processes in the body including core body temperature, which fluctuates throughout the day. To assess the body temperature of patients, researchers used four external skin sensors to monitor the circadian rhythm, which was found to range between 23.5 hours and 26.3 hours. The level of consciousness of each patient was evaluated through the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised, which among others measures responsiveness to sound or a patient's ability to spontaneously open eyes without or only with stimulation by the examiner. Researchers discovered that patients who scored better on the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised, especially, those patients with a stronger arousal had body temperature patterns that were more closely aligned with a healthy 24-hour rhythm. This finding demonstrates a newly discovered relationship between circadian body temperature variation and the level of consciousness of a patient with severe brain damage. This finding suggests that patient's consciousness levels should be assessed during time windows when their circadian rhythm predicts them to be more responsive. The effects of bright light stimulation on patients with severe brain injuries was also investigated during this study. To measure its effectiveness, eight patients received bright light stimulation, three times per day for one hour over the course of one week. After one week, improvements were found in the level of consciousness of two patients, whose condition improved from vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness to a minimally conscious state. Interestingly, in these two patients, a shift in their circadian body temperature, closer to a healthy 24-hour rhythm was also recorded. Co-investigator of the paper Dr Nayantara Santhi from the Surrey Sleep Research Centre, University of Surrey, said: "Prior to our study little was known about the circadian rhythms of patients with brain injuries. What we have learnt is that the circadian body temperature holds vital clues to the state of consciousness of patients which could potentially enable doctors to tailor medical treatment more effectively. "Circadian rhythms hold the secret to the workings of the body and we will be looking further into this in future research."

Brains of one-handed people suggest new organization theory -- ScienceDaily

"We found that the traditional hand area" -- which, Makin notes, takes up a rather sizable portion of the brain -- "gets used up by a multitude of body parts in congenital one-handers. Interestingly, these body parts that get to benefit from increased representation in the freed-up brain territory are those used by the one-handers in daily life to substitute for their missing-hand function -- say when having to open a bottle of water." Whether Makin's theory on brain organization corresponding to function instead of body parts pans out or not, the findings reveal remarkable brain plasticity. Her hope is to find a way to encourage the brain to represent and control artificial body parts, such as a prosthetic arm, using the brain area that would have controlled the missing hand.